This is a story about my quest to decipher the inner mysteries of functional programming. There’s just not enough work out there for the beginner to intermediate functional programmer. This quest would be much easier if I found myself surrounded by other developers with the same pursuit. Or better yet, in the midst of a council of wise greybeards, who could recount days of yore, coding on Lisp Machines and Space Cadet Keyboards.
Weep now, for thee shall dream nevermore of greater splendor…
Bask in the glory of the Space Cadet Keyboard, among whom there is no equal! Wherefore art thou, Lisp Machine, oh divine purveyor of opulence and majestic wisdom.. . . … So, anyways, I’ve been struggling with a problem for the past few months and it’s a bit embarrassing honestly. You see, I’m working on a Swift graphics library called Spectra and I need to parse XML.
Yes, you heard me right: I’m having a hard time parsing XML. Well, technically, I’m parsing it just fine into node trees, registering those into dependency injection. The hard part is working with those trees and allowing everything to remain generic and flexible.
So why is it hard? Well, since I’m using Swift, I want to use the language’s strongly-typed functional capabilities. I’ve been very excited about all the reactive programming libraries and other functional projects I’ve seen with Swift. For me, it’s incredibly important to work on something novel, something fresh, which would be an outlet for my creativity. Why would I want to basically reimplement an age-old problem and recreate the wheel with yet another “Look What I Can Do” graphics library? Impressive? Meh… Yes, actually. Creative? Not really.
Metal and Vulkan Signal Opportunity for 3D Graphics
First, a bit of background on why I’ve spent so much time working on graphics. And then I’ll describe the difference in design and performance that functional programming can make for graphics.
VR means that Graphics is shaping up to be a high-demand skill rapidly – and so is compute, with AI and machine learning growing by the minute. The allure of distributed machine learning is enticing as well – compute cost could be offloaded to consumers under some circumstances.
Look What I Can Do!
I Drew A Triangle with 500 Lines of Code!
I first saw the opportunity when I began to work with Metal, an alternative to OpenGL at the suggestion of someone on an Apple IRC channel. I compared the two frameworks and something clicked with me when I was looking at Metal. The framework seemed simpler than OpenGL. It was designed for both graphics AND compute. I loved the challenge of it - there was no one else doing this stuff! It was still fresh. There were no open source libraries or frameworks built on Metal yet.
Metal is exclusive to Apple platforms. The competing framework Vulkan was designed by the Kronos Group, a graphics industry consortium. It just came out and is impressive as well. I smelled an opportunity. Since these major graphics developments just came out, that means that there’s a need for frameworks to be built for them. The vastly superior flexibility of Metal and Vulkan implies drastically novel implementations for higher level graphics frameworks.
Yes, there are already existing frameworks like Unity and Unreal Engine. And yes, those frameworks have massive followings in the game development world. Developers have contributed years of their life becoming familiar with those designs, so it’s not going to be easy to unseat them. However, the new frameworks with a completely fresh start on design are the frameworks that are capable of truly harnessing the power of Metal and Vulkan.
The existing major players will want to take advantage of many of the new features, like superior memory access modes and other optimizations, for performance and flexibility. Doing so will mean at least two or more years of migration. And they are anchored to OpenGL support for older devices as well. Even still, these larger frameworks are locked into maintaining some design patterns for the next complete major version at least.
And no, I don’t think my framework will ever be on their level – the best thing it has going for it right now is the name, Spectra. However, I’m excited to work on building a graphics framework from the ground up with zero a priori knowledge on the traditional design of such a framework, aside from what I picked up from the basic tutorials out there.
Spectra: A Functional Graphics Library
On a First Party Platform and Language
Apple tightly controls the design of their mobile chips. Vulkan is required to support a much wider array of graphics cards, which honestly is still fairly limited since almost everything running hardware from a handful of companies. Check the Vulkan Hardware Chart for more info. For example, only NVidia cards from Fermi onwards will support Vulkan and to varying degrees of functionality. That’s basically NVidia’s products from the last 3 years. Support is not uniform across operating system and the software interface may vary slightly, both of which mean somewhat more complex software design or more likely a markedly reduced usage of Vulkan’s distinguishing features.
Apple’s minimal variance in hardware means performance optimization is minimally complex, even though the reduced diversity in devices for Vulkan means there’s not too much of a difference here. But more tightly controlled hardware design for Metal-capable devices implies several advantages.
Metal Advantages Driven By Hardware
⊕ Faster consumer adoption of Metal-capable devices
⊕ Simpler software complexity to realize performance gains
⊕ Nearly complete Metal feature penetration.
⊕ Simpler software tooling for developers, like debuggers.
⊕ Segmented market means Metal is decoupled from other industry progress.
All of this translates into opportunity for Apple to provide unique offerings to marketably distinguish it’s graphical and gaming capabilities. That’s Apple. And to those who question my exploration of graphics and gaming on Apple’s platform, I have my reasons. And yes, the software developed to ride Metal will have a smaller market. But that’s a good thing. The past decade has shown that Apple platforms tap markets that are consistently more affluent and sophisticated.
Apple has always had an advantage in software performance, both efficiency of compute and power consumption, that results from their limited hardware platforms. This constitutes a major advantage for Apple – they may end up having the most efficient graphics and compute platform. They’ll definitely have the earliest, most consistent set of software tools for developers. The Metal debugging tools are fantastic, trust me. And though most people don’t think of Apple as providing a rich platform for gaming or VR, Metal might just make the difference.
And so, I began to think that building a graphics platform might present valuable opportunity later on – or help me build credibility in a technology economy where knowledge of 3D modeling, graphics, algorithms and processing is going to determine who is most capable of building the next revolutionary software products. So even if my framework with a novel functional design wasn’t exactly revolutionary, what I’d learn would make it worth my time.
Swift: Functional For Fun and Profit
A Graphics Framework to Learn Low-Level Graphics
And yet another major strength for Apple: the Swift language. Yes, it’s open source now and available on Linux. But it’s still a first party language and one of the few that’s functional and enjoys wide support. The programming patterns in Haskell seem to work fairly well in Swift, which opens interesting new design possibilities that aren’t as available for other operating systems and platforms. Apple is great at concentrating their energy into the right places and Swift exemplifies this.
As I was learning to work with graphics and compute myself, I wanted to build a framework that allowed me to explore various graphics pipelines. This means being able to take various meshes and processing their vertices and surfaces in various ways. I envisioned many creative uses of graphics techniques using the primitives found in Metal. I unknowingly used a compute shader to create what is known as a tessellation shader in OpenGL. I constantly found myself reinventing known techniques in graphics.
So, wrapping Metal, MetalKit and Model I/O with XML should allow me to explore various graphics techniques. I could easily switch between a rendering pipeline for basic 3D and one for Stereoscopic displays, for example. Or I could explore various means of processing to offscreen textures or utilizing depth stencils. Another major interest for me was voxellization, which processes 3D data using voxels instead of points and polygon primitives. I also found myself recreating the wheel with submesh indexing and mapping. I wanted to construct shaders which would basically process color, texture or other data in a graph composed of a network of vertices on a surface, encoded into a submesh. I imagined this all before I ever looked at the Model I/O API. I had soo many beautiful ideas I could see in my head, but no framework to build them with.
Conway’s Game of Life
Processing elements in a graph of vertices in a submesh is basically Conway’s Game of Life for 3D objects.
Now, imagine the above, but instead of manipulating the value of each cell, you are manipulating the position, texture coordinate, color, anisotropy or surface normal value for a vertex on a mesh. And you’re doing so by constructing a random, balanced graph using a submesh on a mesh, which only requires the addition of one attribute to your mesh – basically, an XML tag or just one mesh transformation. Paired with anisotropy modulation and the right fragment shader, this technique could be particularly amazing. However, it does require execution of a compute shader on each frame, as well as sacrificing some performance declarations for some of the fragment shader function inputs.
You can find more info on Cellular Automata and Conway’s Game of Life here. I remember coding this in Pascal in high school, though I wasn’t aware of the name at the time.
Exploring these concepts would allow me to visually demonstrate my math and programming skills to the world in a way which no one could downplay or deny! Where before, a handful of people have, towards my detriment, essentially claimed that I lack skill or knowledge in technology and pointed to my difficulty with UI design/implementation, if I begin to excel in graphics, it’d be visibly obvious that they’ve been wrong the whole time. What is often preclusively difficult for these same detractors, I soak up like a sponge. It’s just frustrating that I haven’t had the opportunity to work with this stuff. Or work at efficiently at 60 hours per week at any time during the past four years, for whatever reason.
Graphics and especially geometry manipulation would allow me to begin to understand algebraic geometry, which studies the functional “shapes” that emerge from morphisms between increasingly complicated categories and their duals – the stuff functional programming is made of. I could learn advanced math at the same time as producing a very visual portfolio that would make it impossible for anyone to insinuate that I lacked skill. I am seriously so tired of that shit.
If you think I am below you, could you maybe treat me in the same way I would treat someone who I perceived to be below my skill level? I would offer that person authentic advice on where to find the answers to improve.
And so, I found myself designing a kind of novel rendering pipeline that chains blocks of functional behavior to be sent to an encoder for the GPU. It seemed different than how all the docs online I was reading were describing how graphics were processed. This design would allow me to dynamically restructure models that were being rendered or switch them to be rendered with different pipelines. In theory, this design would also make it a bit easier (fingers crossed) to use the parallel render encoder for Metal, which enables you to use multiple CPU cores to direct graphics to be encoded. So, functional design paradigms for a graphics framework should promote simplicity (in theory) and more manageable performance. Swift’s nature opens up possibilities for faster realization of Metal’s benefits.
Furthermore, perhaps the most exciting for myself, functional programming is based on category theory and so are the primitives for constructing and manipulating geometry. I could design a framework that allows me to specify the definition of mesh constructions and transformations as a composition of functions. I should easily be able to transform one mesh to another or subdivide it with a tesselation or add attributes like surface normals, all with the composition of fairly simply defined attributes. Such a framework for geometry would be amazing for providing visuals at a lightshow. And I could finally learn how it all worked.
It was a bit frustrating for me to realize my natural talent for this. As with everything else, I found creativity surging, but the time and skill for implementation lacking. Still, not a single person has contributed to my library. That’s OK. I’m pretty opinionated as to the kind of design I want, but I would really appreciate any advice. And admittedly, some of these problems are a bit out of my reach. Buffer allocation and the kind of speciallized resource utilization required for complex 3D graphics is really just too hard for me right now. Also, benchmarking and estimating the workload for each frame, 60 times a second – and especially redirecting resources when you detect a workload that exceeds your throughput – this is incredibly tough. Resource prioritization and resource allocation for 3D graphics are problems that are orders of magnitude more difficult than designing a scene graph and rendering some things.
But that challenge is exactly what I find alluring.
Why XML for Spectra? And Why Is It Hard?
So again, XML would provide a universal means of defining objects my program would work with, both the graphics pipeline objects and the objects to be rendered. And best of all, it’d be declarative. Furthermore, it’d be fairly simple to transfer data about a 3D scene over HTTP with XML to be rendered with shaders on a native app or in VR. This idea is all over the place and there are many similar frameworks for 3D with HTML Canvas.
But then, I found myself needing dependency injection badly, especially when passing objects in for rendering. D/I is usually an object-oriented design pattern, but I wanted to bring over the simpilicity I saw in Angular. I needed access to everything, everywhere pretty much. Yet, at the same time, I needed manageable and performant dependency injection. Graphics is such a great problem for exploring hard problems in computer science. It’s not so bad, just exploring the pipeline or scene graph. But as soon as you get into resource management and memory allocation and reference management, things get real hard, real fast. I’m still not there, but it made applying dependency injection a bit harder. I would need to manage how objects were organized as containers and which objects were passed where.
And as I applied dependency injection, I found that this would be very useful for manipulating objects in my scene graph as well. That is, I could define a set of shaders and construct a graphics pipeline once, then when I instantiated everything, I could do so on several devices or GPU’s at once. This is mildly useful for managing the pipelines. However, for managing elements in my scene graph, this added functionality is incredibly useful! Again, I could define things once and read the XML nodes into dependency injection containers. From there, I can generate the XML node objects into actual Metal & Model I/O objects, but before I do, I can compose those nodes with other nodes or entirely replace some branches of objects in the scene graph. This is very useful when you want your graphics framework to process real-time geometry shaders.
I could duplicate the objects and allocate the copies to memory, as the former is being rendered. I could then apply geometry manipulations as attributes on the latter copies. I could alter the surface normals or change the texture coordinates or add more vertices (and update submeshes accordingly) to prepare for a transformation from one shape to another. And then, once those geometry morphisms were complete, I could use continuation and state monads to execute a deferred callback to swap out the objects being rendered and another callback to deallocated the former copies, only retaining the copied objects afterward. AFAIK, all of this stuff is incredibly challenging and not very easy with existing frameworks.
But these capabilities were only possible if I could read the scene graph into D/I containers just the right way so that resources could be easily managed later. And this depended on working with the trees of XML nodes in an unusual way. Any design that I approached seemed to make the problem space just as complicated as if I didn’t have XML at all. This is because the meta-structure for any tree is almost as complicated as the tree itself, which means manipulating the tree programmatically requires knowledge of the tree structure. And THAT means it’s pointless to read in the objects in XML, since to manipulate them, you need to know the structure of each tree and subtree, which is ok if you’re hard coding units of behavior. Yet, if you want arbitrary manipulation of objects in a scene graph, things become quite a bit harder.
Learning to Swift the Right Way
I explored a ton of different ideas in pursuit of finding the right idea. I wanted to take advantage of Swift’s Haskell-like type system. (I guess it’s ok to refer to it like that). I explored metaprogramming and reflection with Swift, both of which are fairly lacking. I would go down the rabbit hole, so to speak, just to find that there was absolutely no way to do the thing I was trying. Then, I would have to spend a ton of time backing out of the rabbit hole. Each time, I made a design change, I had to replicate it across between 20 and 40 classes … because I’m a genius…
It seemed that classes were the way to go and that structs were more
restrictive, since they descended from
Any. But this conflicted
with everything I saw online. It seemed like metaprogramming
AnyObject were less restrictive at
first, but this was only because I didn’t understand how to use
or enums or structs. I was starting to get it, but still, designing
with protocols, structs and enums from the ground up wasn’t (and still
isn’t) natural for me. But I have seen the light.
I realized I needed more math and so I started watching tons of lectures on everything: Abstract Algebra, Combinatorics, Matroids and more. But still, I couldn’t find the elusive knowledge for working with trees. I looked at parser combinators and lexers. I looked at the documentation on Google’s perfect design for generating & managing DOM, parsed from HTML. But still, that (and everything else) mostly talked about generating a tree-like object from text or some other form. Instead of manipulating it.
I began to realize that what I wanted to do was moreso along the lines of manipulating AST’s, so I started looking into that and Type Theory. I found HOAS’s and PHOAS’s, but those concepts were a bit much for me. All the articles I found were written with obscure mathematical notation. I finally found Lenses and Prisms, which are the perfect library for working with this kind of stuff.
By the way, if you want a great intro to Type Theory, check out Erik Hinton’s presentation on The Derivative of a Regular Type is its Type of One-Hole Contexts. I’ll try to write a Lambda Fu Powerup post on AST/HOAS/PHOAS soon. It’s an incredibly powerful concept that I’ve been fascinated with for quite some time, but I have a ton to learn.
Next Up on Lambda Fu!
Optics: Lenses and Prisms in Swift
So far, I’ve explained the benefits of a graphics framework, entirely built on functional programming. And it’s viability of In part two, I’ll break down these miraculous functional programming data structures. I’ll explore less of the how and spur your imagination with a description of the why, which has been quite difficult for me to learn.
If you want to learn more about Metal or Model I/O, I highly recommend checking out Apple’s WWDC 2014 & 2015 videos on the subject, which are linked below. Also of use is the Metal for Developers page, which links to the Metal Programming Guide, Metal Shader Language Guide, and Metal Framework Reference, all of which are immensely useful. As I’ve gotten used to Apple’s documentation, I’ve found it to be some of the best, concise and centralized of any platform or framework.
And finally, if you’re getting into Metal, you’re going to want to check out FlexMonkey’s blog. He has some amazing examples with Metal, as well as image processing. @FlexMonkey Follow him on Twitter if you’re into this stuff, for real!